This is the name of a horse team made up of three horses harnessed in one row. In the center, under the arc, there is a root, usually a larger and more powerful horse, and on both sides, pull-up horses are harnessed, which, when riding fast, must gallop and, as they say, curl up in a ring for beauty.
Three-horse teams appeared in Rus about 250-300 years ago. They were required for the quick delivery of the sovereign's mail to destinations and the transportation of high-ranking passengers.
One of the first mentions of Russian troikas in Russian literature is found in the book by A.N. Radishchev "Travel from St. Petersburg to Moscow"... As the productive forces develop, the purpose of the Russian triplets is noticeably expanded. In the first half of the last century, they already began to appear at folk festivals, where they organized horse competitions and races. The owners of triplets tried to decorate them with colorful ribbons, hung bells from an arc, and ringing bells were attached to the horse harness.
Troika is a primordially Russian way of fast horse riding. In other countries, such harnesses have not been used and are not used. Immortal words about Russian troikas were written by the great writer N.V. Gogol in a poem "Dead Souls".
A lot of wonderful songs have been composed about Russian troikas, which are very popular among our people at the present time. This is masterfully shown in a television documentary directed by W. Gems “Irakly Andronnikov. About Russian troikas "... In this film, famous Soviet singers I.S.Kozlovsky, S.Ya. Lemeshev and others perform such well-known songs as "Here the postal troika is racing", "The troika is racing, the troika is jumping", "The bell is ringing monotonously", "When I served as a coachman at the post office" other. In many types of shots of this film, the champion of three-wheel drive of our days, V.I.Fomin, is shown.
Russian troikas are invariably admired all over the world. They are widely used in our country for wedding rituals, festive celebrations, in parks of culture and recreation.
Preparing triplets requires a lot of patience, perseverance and the necessary knowledge. At one time, Russian troikas were formed from horses of Vyatka and other local breeds. In our time, the requirements for the quality of training horses have increased greatly. The Oryol or Russian trotter is now usually used as a root-horse - quite frisky, stable at a trotting gait, calm and obedient in character.
The best riding horses are considered to be half-breed riding horses: Terek, Budennovsk, Kustanai, as well as Anglo-Kabardian and Anglo-Karachai horses. But horses and trotting breeds can be attached, moreover, of a lighter body type in comparison with the rump. Horses of other breeds can also be harnessed to Russian troikas: local Estonian, Vyatka, as well as ordinary crosses from the working population of collective and state farm horse farms. It is best to use geldings (castrates) in triplets at the age of at least four years for a root horse and at least three years for pulling horses.
According to the new rules for testing Russian triplets at hippodromes, horses of a thoroughbred riding breed (race) cannot be used in these harnesses. Root and pinch must be of the same suit. Trials at racetracks can be tested both in summer and winter. Summer three-seater sledges - standard, weighing at least 350 kg, winter - three-seater sleds (standard) weighing at least 100 kg. The harness is traditional Russian, without additional devices.
In addition to trials in prizes for distances of 1600, 2400, 3200 and 4800 m, there is a championship of triplets in the beauty of the harness, selection and congestion. Each of these three features is assessed on a five-point system. The highest marks are given to troikas, made up of horses of the same type, well matched in height and color, harnessed to a beautiful type-setting harness. The art of the rider is also taken into account. He must steer the troika so that the stalker runs at a steady trot, and the tackle runs at a gallop. The troika should calmly stand at stops, easily obey the rider when driving, and demonstrate high efficiency in trials or while riding.
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