1. WHEAT FLOUR IN RUSSIA. TYPES, VARIETIES, PROPERTIES.
Wheat flour is a powdery grinding product of wheat. It is the main component of flour confectionery.The baking properties of flour depend on a number of indicators.
The most important of them are the content and quality of gluten - a kind of skeleton formed in the dough by protein substances of wheat.
Grit - gluten - 30%
Premium grade - proteins 10.3% gluten - 28%
First grade - proteins 10.6% gluten - 30%
Second grade - proteins 11.7% gluten - 25-28%
Flour can be poor or rich gluten
, however, in outlets on packages with flour it is not written how much gluten it contains. In most cases, we buy a mix of different varieties, which contains a medium amount of gluten. Particularly labeled flours are of much better quality.
According to the content of proteins, as well as vitamins Bl, B2, PP and E, second-grade flour and wallpaper are more complete in comparison with flour and flour of the highest and first grades, darker in color.Grain grain composition:
Wheat grain is covered with a brownish shell, which gives, when milled, bran, which is richer than whole grains in protein, vitamins and especially cellulose. There is an aleurone layer of small granules under the shell. The embryo at the base of the grain is rich in oil as well as protein and minerals. The rest are thin-layer endosperm cells. Filled with starch grains and particles of gluten, which gives the dough viscosity.
Bran - the outer surface of the grain,
Endosperm is the main part of the grain,
The sprout is the smallest part of the grain.Flour can be fine and coarse.
Coarse flour - whole grain flour. With coarse grinding, almost all the grain is ground into flour, which consists of large particles, contains cell membranes, bran (2nd grade wheat, wallpaper).
Fine flour is flour from the endosperm, i.e. the inner part of the grain. With fine grinding, white flour, tender, consists of small particles of grain, the outer layers of which are removed (wheat 1st grade, premium). Contains mostly starch and gluten, and virtually no fiber.
The finer the grinding and the higher the grade of flour, the less proteins and especially minerals and vitamins in it, but the more starch and the better the digestibility and assimilability of starch and proteins.As for terminology, coarsely ground grain is called meal, and finer grain is called flour.WHEAT FLOUR VARIETIES
The flour-grinding industry in Russia produces wheat flour of the following varieties:
• wallpaper.The term "grade of flour" does not mean a reduced or increased quality of flour compared to a higher or lower grade, but indicates that this flour with certain quality characteristics is intended for a specific use in nutrition.
Wheat flour varieties differ from one another in yield (the amount of flour obtained from 100 kg of grain), color, ash content, varying degrees of grinding (particle size), the content of bran particles, and the amount of gluten. According to the percentage yield of flour when grinding grain, flour varieties are divided into:
grit 10% (it is obtained only 10% of the total amount of grain in a volume of 100 kg.),
premium grade (25-30%),
first grade (72%),
second grade (85%) and
wallpaper (about 93-96%).
The higher the flour yield, the lower the grade.
- consists of homogeneous small grains of light cream color. There is almost no bran in it. It is rich in gluten and has high baking properties. Grit is produced from special varieties of wheat and is distinguished by the larger size of individual particles. It is advisable to use this flour for yeast dough with a high sugar and fat content for such products as cakes, buns, etc. For uncooked yeast dough, grit is of little use, since the dough from it is poorly suited, and the finished products have poor porosity and quickly stale.
• TOP GRADE FLOUR
- differs from grains in that grains are not felt between the fingers when rubbed. Its color is white with a slightly creamy tint. Premium flour contains a very high percentage of gluten.
The best category of the highest grade is called "Extra"
... It is often used as a thickener in sauces and is also suitable for baking.This type of flour is most common in the manufacture of the highest grades of flour products. Wheat flour of the highest grade has good baking properties, products made from it have a good volume and fine developed porosity. This flour is best used for shortcrust, puff and yeast doughs, sauces and flour dressings.
• FIRST GRADE FLOUR
- soft to the touch, finely ground, white with a slightly yellowish tinge. Flour of the first grade has a sufficiently high content of gluten, which makes the dough from it elastic, and the finished products are of good shape, large volume, pleasant taste and aroma. Flour of the first grade is good for uncomfortable pastries (rolls, pies, pancakes, pancakes, browning, national types of noodles, etc.), and for baking various bread products. Finished products from it stale more slowly.
High-quality bakery and confectionery products are usually made from high-grade wheat flour. SECOND GRADE FLOUR
it is white with a noticeable yellowish or brown tint, contains up to 8% bran, it is much darker than the first-class. It can be light and dark. The latter is better in terms of baking qualities - baked goods from it are fluffy, with a porous crumb. It is mainly used for baking table varieties of white bread and non-rich flour products. It is often mixed with rye flour. This flour is used in the manufacture of some confectionery products (gingerbread and cookies). WALLPAPER FLOUR
- produced from all types of soft wheat varieties, it contains 2 times more bran than flour of the 2nd grade, color with a brown tint. In wallpaper flour, the content of bran particles is the highest. In terms of its baking properties, it is inferior to varietal wheat flour, but it is characterized by a higher nutritional value. The shells of grain contain protein substances, vitamins of groups B and E, mineral salts of calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium. The kernel of the grain is rich in starch and contains significantly less protein and other nutrients than its peripheral layers. Therefore, flour made from whole grain or with the addition of finely ground bran in their nutritional value is significantly superior to high-grade flour. Wallpaper flour is mainly used for baking table breads and is rarely used in cooking. BREAD FLOUR
(standard flour for baking bread sold in stores) contains a high percentage of proteins (usually 11.5 - 13.5%), which forms the quality gluten necessary for better raising and crust formation. Bread flour can be bleached or unbleached. Sometimes malt flour is added to it to speed up the fermentation process and improve the quality of the dough. Flour with a high gluten content is used practically only for making yeast dough, for baking homemade bread, bagels, bagels.WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT FLOUR
- ordinary wholemeal flour has a high protein content (11-14% or more), but it does not form as much gluten as bread flour with the same protein content. This is due to the fact that the ovary of wheat contains components that prevent the formation of gluten.For this reason, the dough made from coarse flour differs from the dough made from white flour. First of all, because it is less sticky and elastic, and also because the product turns out to be denser and coarser. It is also darker in color and rougher in taste.
DURUM HARD WHEAT FLOUR.
– made from durum wheat.
Durum wheat is not the same as regular wheat used for white flour and wholemeal flour. Durum wheat has very hard grains - much harder than so-called durum wheat, and is very rich in protein (up to 15%). It also contains a lot of carotenoid pigment, which gives the desired golden color to pasta. In addition to the production of pasta, durum flour is used in specific products, such as, for example, Italian semolina bread. This flour is good for making dough for noodles, dumplings and other products, where there is a possibility of cooking products in water or steam.
- forms of wheat obtained by crossing it with rye
At present, the triticale culture, which has a high yield, winter hardiness and resistance to various diseases, is acquiring great practical interest. This culture combines the biological value of rye protein substances with the unique baking properties of wheat, allows not only to increase the nutritional value of bread, but also to solve the problem of rye deficiency, as well as expand the raw material base of the bakery industry.
The first standards for triticale baked goods also appeared. However, research in this direction in our country is clearly weak, which hinders the spread of this culture in production.
The properties of triticale have not yet been sufficiently studied, and at present it is mainly used as a grain feed crop, since the first test baked goods showed negative results: the bread was low, and the crumb was dense and sticky. Such a low quality of bread is explained by the fact that the triticale culture has inherited from rye increased activity of amylolic enzymes, in particular, amylase.SPELTA
Is an ancient variety of wheat. Due to the fact that it brings lower yields, wheat gradually forced it out of the fields.POLBA
... If the spelled is squeezed still green, unripe, and then dried at a temperature of 120 * C, then such a grain is called spelled. As a result of drying, spelled receives an incomparable spicy and piquant aroma.SPELTA (POLBA)
similar to wheat, but not as weakened by unilateral selection. This cereal requires a special climate, similar to the climate in Switzerland or Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The peculiarity of spelled is that it completely or almost does not tolerate artificial fertilizers, which means that it is impossible to increase its yield in this way. Spelled grain harvested at the stage of milky ripeness and well-dried is used to make porridge and delicious soups. Spelled bread is light and tastes like wheat with a fragrant nutty flavor.
Spelled is richer in protein, unsaturated fatty acids and fiber than regular wheat. Contained in it special soluble carbohydrates - mycopolysaccharides (mucopolysaccharides) - have the ability to strengthen the immune system. The beneficial substances contained in spelled have a high level of solubility, so they are easier and faster absorbed by the body. Spelled has about the same gluten content as regular wheat, if not more. However, it differs in the structure of its constituent amino acids, and therefore affects the human body differently than wheat. Studies carried out in the United States have shown that spelled gluten does not cause allergies in half of the cases in people who are sensitive to this element in wheat grains. Some scientists even argue that, on the contrary, it helps fight celiac disease. The same features of gluten make spelled flour an excellent product for baking healthy bread.Products made from this flour are distinguished by a crispy crust, dense crumb and indescribable aroma and taste. The dough rises almost twice as fast as wheat, and this must be taken into account when preparing dough or baking bakery products in electric bread makers.Spelled
contains almost all the nutrients that a person needs, in a harmonious and balanced quantitative combination - and not only in the shell of the grain, but evenly throughout the grain. This means that it retains the nutritional value in the finished bread, even when finely ground.