Too fresh, bread just from the oven is not very good for eating: it chews poorly, rolls into lumps that are difficult to soak in digestive juices, which means they are less digestible. Lumps of hot rye bread stuck together are especially harmful; they can even cause indigestion. For people suffering from diseases of the stomach, liver and heart, it is more useful to eat yesterday's or slightly dried bread.
In factories, E-ingredients were added to bread and loaves to extend the lifespan. As a rule, these are leavening agents, which give the loaf fluffiness and do not allow it to harden quickly, and preservatives (lactic or acetic acid) so that it does not spoil. Such additives are mainly used for the production of exotic breads: potato, cheese, corn. They are expensive, therefore, in order not to spoil in two days, they add E-ingredients to the recipe. Thus, the shelf life has increased to seven days. In the usual rye-wheat breads, it is no more than five days.
In addition, the bread is packed in plastic bags. The moisture has nowhere to evaporate - the bread becomes stale more slowly. New technology forcibly cools the bread after baking. He is placed in chambers in which powerful fans drive air. Bread that has cooled down quickly grows moldy more slowly.
The bread becomes stale within a few hours after being taken out of the oven, since the composition of the bread contains starch polysaccharides, which under normal storage conditions quickly pass from a soluble state to an insoluble one. All kinds of additives only slow down this process.
However, when stored properly, it can be kept fresh for several days.
Bread should be stored in sealed containers, in special bread bins - metal, plastic, wooden. The best way is to store in wooden bread bins wrapped in a linen napkin. Polyethylene bags are absolutely unsuitable for this purpose, since the bread in them quickly molds under the influence of moisture. Never put away hot bread, let it cool. You cannot take out hot bread to the cold.
Bread boxes should be sufficiently airtight and have a minimum ventilation area. The bread box should be in a dry, light place, such as on a windowsill. In this case, there will be no mold - it forms faster in the shade.
In this case, certain rules must be observed: remove leftovers and crumbs from the breadbox in time, rinse it with a weak solution of vinegar at least once a week and dry it. Acetic acid eats away at the mold and neutralizes the penicillins it contains, which, when decomposed, release unpleasant odors.
Lemon peel helps to rid the bread basket of mold, as well as from the invasion of domestic ants and cockroaches. Lemon will also eliminate the unpleasant specific smell of stale bread. Vinegar is suitable for the same purpose. Rags soaked in vinegar are placed in the corners of the bread bin.
Bread does not stale so quickly if you put a lump of sugar, a small peeled potato or an apple slice in the bread basket. They absorb excess moisture quite well and help maintain the moisture level at the same level. From time to time they need to be replaced with fresh ones.
A handful of salt placed in a tightly closed bread bin will prevent bread from mold. Salt is a good preservative that inhibits the growth of microorganisms.
From mold, as well as from unpleasant odors, a piece of charcoal wrapped in gauze will help if you put it in a bread bin. Charcoal is excellent at absorbing odors and excess moisture.
Try not to put rye and wheat bread together - otherwise they will quickly become moldy.
Rye bread has a higher moisture content and mold appears earlier. And if you have a breadbox with one section, store rye bread in a plastic bag, with several holes punched, say, with a punch.
In any case, it is better to put white bread separately, because it easily perceives the smell of black bread and loses its taste.
Many people store bread in a plastic bag in the refrigerator. It turns out that bread hardens the fastest at a temperature of +2 degrees. This is exactly the temperature on the top shelf of the refrigerator. For long-term storage of bread, a temperature of -25 degrees is best (at a temperature of -18 degrees, bread can lie for three months). It is better to pre-cut the bread and put it in a bag. As needed, put the frozen bread in the oven for ten minutes, or you can reheat it in the microwave, but in a tightly closed saucepan, and get a fragrant hot bread. And if you don't want to bother with heating, just without removing the plastic bag, put the bread on the table, and in two hours it will be ready to eat. You can freeze bread by cutting it into pieces. Then, when defrosting, you take as many slices of bread as you need.
And some more old tips for storing bread and slowing down its hardening.
Start cutting a whole loaf or loaf not from the edge, but from the middle. Having cut the loaf in half, cut off the required number of slices from the middle, and fold the remaining parts in slices tightly to each other and store that way. Place the loaf cut in the same way vertically. So it is possible to combine the slices more tightly. The bread remains protected on both sides and does not stale longer.
But if, nevertheless, the bread has become stale, it is not difficult to restore it. Experts say that even stale bread does not lose its taste and aroma. So, we save the bread!
1. Dried bread sprinkled with water, or better yet wrapped in wet paper, place in the oven. Please note that this method is not suitable for sprinkled rich varieties.
2. Put the dried bread in a saucepan, close the lid tightly and place in the oven at 120-130 degrees for 20 minutes.
3. In a large pot of water, place the smaller pot on the stand. Put bread in it, cover with a lid and keep on low heat until the smell of fresh bread appears. This is the easiest and most reliable way, as it does not allow the bread to burn if you forget about it, and you will get the bread as from a bakery - fresh and aromatic.
However, the product "revitalized" in this way is desirable to eat immediately, as it quickly loses its softness.
And, finally, you can always dry crackers from stale bread, which can then be used with broth, soup, etc. Store crackers in clean linen bags, and you can always use them for breading, making jelly, casseroles and kvass. In general, a few words of praise should be said about breadcrumbs. Firstly, it is a good alternative to bread for first courses. Crackers have a fairly low moisture content (8-12%), which prevents the formation of mold fungi and other microorganisms. Secondly, crackers are hygroscopic, easily absorb moisture and gastric juice, and therefore are easily absorbed by the body. Thirdly, there is little coarse fiber in breadcrumbs, which is difficult for assimilation, and in wheat bread crumbs the acidity is much lower than that of bread. Therefore, they are used in dietary food for gastrointestinal diseases.
And besides, crackers never get bored, and you can cook various, original and delicious dishes with them.