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GRAIN MALT AND MALT PREPARATIONS.
MALT EXTRACTS AND THEIR USE IN BAKERY


Topic content:

What is MALT

White and red malt production

Malt as an improver

Grain malt and malt preparations

Malt extracts and their use in bakery
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WHAT IS "MALT"
Malt - germinated, dried and ground grain. For the preparation of red rye malt, before drying, languishing or fermentation is also carried out.

The raw materials for malt production are mainly rye and barley, but millet, oats and other grains are also used.
There are two types of malt: white - enzymatically active and red, enzymatically inactive. White is predominantly made from barley, while red is made from rye.

Malt is used in many branches of the food and flavoring industries: bakery, brewing, distilling, yeast production.

In bakery red rye malt It is used for the preparation of various varieties of rye (custard, Borodino, amateur) and wheat (tea, Karelian-Finnish) bread. White malt is included in the recipe for Riga bread. Red rye malt imparts aroma, taste and characteristic color to bread, which is especially important when making rye bread from wholemeal flour to improve its taste, and when making bread from 2nd grade wheat flour (85%) to add flavor, more pleasant color and better elasticity (malt with part of the flour is brewed).
TYPES OF MALT

Short-growing malt:
Short-growing malts are intermediate between unmalted grains and malt. They are occasionally used in the processing of reconstituted malts, as well as to increase foaming and head retention. There are two types of short-growing malts: "hatched" - this is barley after 48-72 hours of soaking; such malt can be considered as unmalted barley in terms of its influence on the filterability of beer and the content of high-protein compounds in it;

"short" is malt, which is germinated after soaking for 2-4 days; from a technological point of view, it does not cause difficulties in processing.

Dark malt:
Beers produced by the brewing industry are divided into 3 categories: light, semi-dark and dark. These varietal differences are mainly due to the type of malt used and the type and amount of unmalted raw materials added. Most often, for the production of semi-dark and dark types of beer, dark malt is used, the share of which in the grist can be up to 85% in some types of beer.

This malt differs from pale malt in its low activity of cytolytic, amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes. At the same time, the content of melanoidins in dark malt increases, which have the most delicate malt flavor and roasted malt aroma. They are partially soluble non-fermentable substances with various reducing properties, due to which a certain redox potential is created in the wort. Melanoidins are lyophilic colloids and protect unstable colloids found in beer, preventing their precipitation and the formation of turbidity, they are antioxidants and prevent unstable beer components from oxidation. However, the beneficial effect of melanoidins on taste stability has recently been disputed.In addition, in the presence of oxygen, melanoidins can promote the oxidation of higher alcohols to aldehydes, which give the beer an aging flavor. (Minus malt concentrates) The undoubted positive effect of melanoidins on the quality of beer is their ability to form strong surface films in solution, which increases the foam formation and foam stability of beer.

In Russia, only one type of dark malt is produced (GOST 29294-92), while two types of Munich dark malt and Viennese malt are known abroad. Regardless of the type, the extract of malts is 78-80% (except for Russian), and therefore its share in the grist can reach 100%. By varying the amount and type of malt, beers can be produced with a variety of color shades, from golden to copper or to dark brown.

Caramel Malt:
In terms of color intensity, caramel malts are divided into very light, light and dark, the color and aroma of which is associated with both melanoidins and caramel. In this case, the degree of dehydration of sugars is important, as a result of which polymer products of various colors are formed - caramels, caramelans, humic acids and a number of other compounds. Very light caramel malt is used in brewing for Pilsner types of beer, which gives the drink a pleasant taste and aroma, while slightly changing the color of the beer, increases its colloidal stability and head stability, and also increases the fullness of the taste. Light caramel malt is used for both light beers and strong beers with reddish brown tints. This type of malt increases the caramel flavor and malt aroma. Dark caramel malt is used for semi-dark, including coppery, and dark beers. It, like the first two types of malt, enhances the fullness of the flavor and malt aroma, improves the uniformity of the foam without coloring it, and helps to increase the stability of the beer.

Roasted malts:
Roasted malts are made from barley, wheat and rye malts in accordance with the 400-1600 color standard. EVS. The mass fraction of the extract in such malts can be from 65 to 78%. At the same time, with an increase in color, the rancid taste intensifies. The most pleasant taste is roasted wheat malt, since the wheat grain is hull and does not contain chaff, the components of which give an unpleasant rancid aroma when roasted. To soften the taste, uncoated (shelled) barley malt is also roasted. In Russia, the representative of this type of malt is roasted malt (GOST 29294-92).

Roasted malts are used for dark, strong beers mainly to enhance the color of the beer and give it specific flavor and aroma nuances. This malt is indispensable for brewing Porter, Staut and Altbier beers. Depending on the color of the roasted malt and the method of its production, the consumption of roasted malt is 1-5%. The addition of roasted malts increases the head retention and physical and chemical stability of the beer.

Stewed malt:
Stewed or aromatic or fermented malt is characterized by a specific malt and honey aroma. It has a chromaticity of 35 units. EMU. Produced only abroad. This type of malt is used to replace color malts in the production of dark and specialty beers, for example, "Ma''rzen" (Merzen) - 20% in the grist; dark - up to 30% in the grist, "Alt" (Old) - 50% in the grist. It is indicated that the use of this malt helps to reduce the sour taste in beer and increases its biological stability.

Melanoidin Malt:
Melanoidin malt contains the highest amount of melanoidins compared to other malts. It has a characteristic malt flavor (no sour or bitter aftertaste) and an aroma that is unique to this type of malt. Malt has a color of 20-50 units. EBC and extractability up to 81% of DM.Melanoidin malts with a color of 60-80 units are known. EMU. The proportion of melanoidin malt in the grist can range from 5 to 20%. It is used to produce dark beers, in particular beers that have a reddish tint. In addition, it helps to improve the taste and aroma, increase the head retention rate, and prevents the appearance of the "aging" flavor of the beer during storage.

Rye malt:
Rye malt is the main raw material for the production of kvass wort concentrates, but recently it has begun to be used for brewing beer, especially in the North-West, where there is an acute shortage of malting barley. This malt comes in two types: fermented and unfermented. The technology for producing unfermented malt resembles the technology for producing wheat malt. In the production of fermented malt, after germination of rye grain, it is fermented for 4 days, for which the grain is kept at a high temperature (55-68 ° C) without air access. As a result, the content of fermentable sugars and amine nitrogen in it increases almost 5 times. Both types of malts differ significantly in both organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

Rye red malt is the main raw material in the production of kvass wort concentrates. With a shortage of malting barley malt, it is used for the production of beer.

Red malt goes through an additional fermentation process. For this, after the rye grains germinate, the fermentation process is carried out on the fourth day. This process takes place at a high temperature - 55-68 ° С and without air access. After the completion of malt fermentation, the content of fermentable sugars and amine nitrogen increases fivefold. Fermentation or malt simmering is a very important process in the preparation of red malt, which, when dried, affects the flavor, color, aroma of red rye malt. Fermentation takes place in heaps, which are called cargo. For four days, the grain is in a motionless state and various physical and biochemical processes take place in it. After two days, you can observe the division of the malt into four layers. To obtain red malt, the second and partially third layer of the cargo is used. After the malt has passed the fermentation process, it is dried and ground.

rH malt:
rH malt is designed to increase the reducing substances in beer in order to increase the physicochemical and taste stability of pasteurized beer. It has a high content of maltose and protein breakdown products. The malt color is 1.0-1.2 centners. units Malt is added in small quantities (up to 5% of the grist) and does not affect the color of the beer.

Wheat malt:
Wheat is used to produce light, dark and caramelized wheat malt. These malts differ in both color and extract. Depending on the technology for producing wheat malt, its physicochemical parameters can differ significantly from each other. Attention should be paid to the differences between malts in terms of the Kolbach number, the value of which ranges from 39 to 45.5%. According to V. Kunze, an increase in the Kolbach number leads to a decrease in the aroma of wheat beer and, therefore, its value should not exceed 42%.
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PRODUCTION OF WHITE AND RED MALT

The difference in the technological process of making white barley and red rye malt lies only in the fact that with red malt an additional phase is introduced - simmering, or fermentation, and a special mode of its drying. These changes give rise to the specific flavor and color of the red malt. Malt making is relatively straightforward and can be organized by any trust and combine. bakery.

Malt production consists of the following processes: grain preparation, steeping, germination, simmering (with red malt), drying, grinding and storage of malt.

The malting temperature should not be influenced by the outside temperature and the temperature in the malting room should be kept at about 10 ° C, so it is best to set up malt houses in basements and semi-basements. Here can be located: a compartment for soaking grain, a compartment for germinating grain and a compartment for simmering grain. The rest of the offices should be located in other rooms.

Grain preparation.
The quality of the malt depends largely on the grain. The grain must have at least 90% germination. You should not take freshly harvested grain that has insufficient germination ability. For even germination, the grain should be of the same size, if possible. It is advisable to take smaller, four-row and six-row barley (gives more sprouts). Weed and broken grain should be removed, as it is excess ballast and can cause contamination of malt with harmful microorganisms. To do this, the grain is passed through a winnower and sorting, and sometimes a sink.

The processes occurring in the grain during germination.
At a certain degree of grain moisture and air access to it, vital processes begin in the embryo of the grain and the root and sprout are gradually formed. Germination occurs earlier or later, depending on the temperature. Soluble substances (sugar, amino acids) are needed to feed the growing and multiplying cells of the embryo. These substances are obtained by transferring, with the help of enzymes, the reserve substances of the mealy core - starch and proteins - into a soluble state. This significantly increases the number and activity of enzymes (amylase and protease).

As a result of the action of enzymes, sprouted grain (green malt) contains a large amount of sugar, dextrins, amino acids and intermediate protein breakdown products. The enzymes are contained in the sprouted. the grain is mainly in the mealy kernel and there are much less of them in the sprouts. When germinating, the acidity of the grain increases.

Soaking takes place in vats (boxes) lined with bricks and cemented inside, best of all - in iron vats with a conical bottom and lacquered inside. The water used for soaking must be good drinking water and have a temperature of 8-10 °. For the preparation of barley malt, water with a higher temperature is used.

First, water is poured to half the volume of the vat, and then the grain is poured and mixed well. Good grains sink quickly to the bottom, while empty and bad grains float up. Grains floating on the surface are removed and every 10 hours. the water is changed. At each change of water, the grain is left without water for two to three hours for the access of oxygen in the air, which is necessary for the respiration of the grain. At the same time, each time the grain must be mixed so that all the grains receive an even flow of air. Care must be taken to ensure that the grain does not get wet, otherwise it does not germinate well. Soaking is carried out until the grain reaches 42-44% moisture content.

Too little water also inhibits grain growth.
Organoleptically, the end of the lock is defined as follows: the grain, placed by the end between the fingers, does not prick and bends under pressure without breaking; it is also easily pierced with a needle.

The duration of soaking depends on the temperature of the water. Rye at a low temperature, about 5 °, soaked for about 22 hours. and longer, and at a temperature of 12 ° - about 12 hours. The barley is soaked for 48 to 72 hours. To avoid the development of harmful microorganisms (for disinfection) with prolonged soaking, from 1 to 5% of lime by weight of water is added to the first or second wetting water.

Germination is carried out in different ways: 1) on the current; 2) in boxes; 3) in the drums.

Sprouting on a current, that is, on the floor, is the simplest and most common method. In this case, the floor in the malt house is made dense, durable and does not take away moisture from the grain. It is best made from ceramic tiles, Portland cement, or asphalt.The walls are made smooth, painted with oil or enamel paint, the bottom is tiled. When germinating on a current, the soaked grain is folded into flat beds 15-25 cm high. Gradually, during the growth, the height of the beds decreases. With barley, the height of the beds can be from 20 to 40 cm. When germinating, it is necessary to monitor the temperature of the grain; for this, a thermometer is inserted into the bed. The grain is shoveled twice a day for cooling and better air access. If the temperature in the grain, due to the breathing process taking place in it, rises to 18 °, it is shoveled additionally. The temperature in the malt house during germination should not exceed 12 ° and the room should be well ventilated.

The sprouting grain is moistened daily with a spray of water. The presence of sufficient moisture can be determined by putting a shovel on the garden bed for a while with the concave side, at the bottom the shovel is covered with abundant dew. Rye on the last day of germination is not moistened The grain is dried before languishing. Germination takes five to six days.

Germination should be considered complete when the bulk of the grain has a sprout length equal to the length of the grain and does not exceed one and a half grain length. When germinating barley, a short growth of 7-10 days is distinguished, in which the sprouts reach 70-80% of the grain length; and a long growth of 14-17 days, in which the sprout reaches a length of 1.5-2 times the length of the grain.

With a longer growing period, the enzymatic activity of the malt is higher.

A normally sprouting grain has a fresh cucumber odor and should not have a musty odor.

Germination of grain in boxes requires a smaller area of ​​the room, since the height of the layer of poured grain reaches 30-50 cm. Boxes must be cemented. The bottom of the box is made of mesh, under the bottom there is a space for sucking air from under the mesh through the thickness of the grain layer.

The air from the box is sucked by a fan through a duct located parallel to the box. When the air is sucked out, the generated carbon dioxide is removed and fresh air is supplied to the grain. Suction is carried out from one or another box, depending on the temperature in one or another box.

The number of crates equals the number of days the malt has grown The soaked grain is loaded first into box # 1, then into the next box in numerical order and shoveled daily. The boxes, starting with the second, gradually become wider and wider, since the volume of the grain increases and, in order to maintain the same layer height, one must have a larger area. The temperature in the first two boxes should not exceed 15 °, and in the next 18 °.

When transferring grain from one box to another, it is moistened, only when transferring grain to the last box, moistening is not performed. When transferring grain from box to box, the grain is brought into contact with air as much as possible. To do this, the grain is thrown, while the packed lumps of grain are scattered, and the remaining clods are broken with shovels.

Rotating in drums eliminates the need for shoveling the grain, since the iron round drums rotate slowly (one revolution in 40 minutes) and at the same time humidified air of the required temperature enters the drum.

Simmering, or fermentation, is carried out only when making red malt. The purpose of the process is further accumulation of amino acids and sugars in the grain, which, during drying, determine the specific taste, aroma and color of red rye malt. The fermentation process takes place in heaps called cargo. The load has the shape of a prism with a rounded top or a very high garden bed 70-90 cm high.

Fermentation, or languor, green malt lasts about four days. During the first 72 hours. the grain remains in place and physical and biochemical changes occur in its thickness.After two days, four layers are observed in the heap of grain: 1) upper, moldy, up to 15 cm thick; 2) decisive, characterized by a brown-red grain color and a very pleasant bread smell up to 25 cm thick; 3) intermediate, 35 cm thick; 4) lower, 15-20 cm thick.

Physical and biochemical changes that determine the quality of red rye malt occur in the second and partially in the third layer of the cargo. The temperature in the upper layer reaches 50 °, and in the second 60 °. In order to lower the temperature in the second layer after 56 hours. after dumping the cargo, trimming is carried out, i.e. loosening of the top layer in order to avoid excessive heating of the cargo.

72 hours after placing the green malt in the cargo, the bulkhead is carried out so that the first and lower layers of the cargo are interchanged with the second (decisive) layer.

After 24 hours, the malt goes to the dryer.
Drying of malt is carried out in special dryers. There are older dryers in which malt comes into direct contact with flue gases — smoke and coke dryers. Air dryers are more advanced, where drying is performed with heated air. The air is heated by passing into the furnaces through heating pipes. Even more advanced dryers are drum dryers. Dryers are most often equipped with two grates located one above the other. The moisture formed during drying is removed through a special exhaust pipe; artificial traction is also arranged.

When drying red rye malt, the following conditions must be met:
1) drying is carried out on a grid, and the thickness of the malt layer should not exceed 12-13 cm;
2) shoveling of malt should take place after 6 hours. after loading the malt into the dryer and then produced every two hours until the end of drying;
3) drying ends when the malt reaches 8-10% moisture content;
4) drying is carried out in such a way that the temperature of the malt layer rises gradually and after 12 hours. was about 70 °;
5) gradual heating of the malt is necessary in order for the formation of color and aroma of malt to occur at a significant moisture content, 20-30%.

With white barley malt, the drying temperature of the malt should not exceed 58-59 °. Drying lasts from 24 to 48 hours. The malt is first loaded onto the upper wire rack and then transferred to the lower wire rack. The temperature on the lower grate is higher than on the upper one.

Grinding. Before grinding, the malt is pre-cooled for one day. Then it is sieved, while the shoots are removed.
Red rye malt is ground on conventional millstones.
Packaged malt is aged for one month to achieve optimum flavor.
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MALT QUALITY

Red rye malt must be so ground; so that when sifting it on a wire sieve No. 24, the remainder is no more than 10%, and no more than 50% passes through a sieve No. 38.

White malt by the coarseness of the grinding, they are prepared smaller.

Moisture, acidity, color, and the amount of extractives are determined in malt; in white malt, in addition, the duration of saccharification and the quality of the filtrate are determined.

Smell and taste. The malt should have a pleasant aroma. The malt should not have the cucumber green malt smell. A musty odor indicates the presence of mold in the malt, either due to insufficient germination or poor storage conditions. Most often, mold is introduced with the grain itself if it is insufficiently cleaned. The smell is clearer when the malt is lightly heated in the hand or when rubbed in a mortar.

Heating malt in water at 50 ° is also used for odor recognition. The malt flavor should be sweet with a pleasant aroma; a musty, sour, bitter flavor indicates malt deficiencies.

Color should be uniform.

Good red rye malt should be aromatic, sweet-tasting, and pinkish-brown in color.
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MALT AS AN IMPROVER

Malt is a sprouted grain. The changes in matter that occur during seed germination are generally fairly well known; we have already referred to them many times.

In order to use insoluble, high-molecular-weight endosperm storage substances in the form of nutrition, the embryo that awakens to life must process them into soluble and easily perceived forms. For this, he has at his disposal various enzymes and, above all, the ability to form such enzymes in large quantities. During germination, the amount of enzymes increases markedly.

It is firmly established that the amount of both carbohydrate-degrading amylases, or diastases, and protein-dissolving enzymes (proteases) increases with the duration of germination. The action of these enzymes is manifested in the formation of soluble substances.

Starch is broken down into dextrins and malt sugar, and partly into grape sugar; protein substances pass into various, even less characteristic intermediate stages, into albumoses, peptones and amides. Associated with this change is the partial degradation of minerals, especially phosphates, into inorganic form. The processes can be analytically traced both by the increase in the amount of soluble constituents, and by the increased enzymatic strength that characterizes the grain.

How simple these growth processes are in general, how complex they are individually - and their mechanism is still not known.

It is known that the decomposition of starch is divided into 2 phases: liquefaction of swollen and gelatinized starch and subsequent saccharification. Both processes run in parallel, but the conditions favorable to them are completely different. While the optimum saccharification temperature is 45-50 °, the liquefaction of starch occurs faster - only at 60-70 ° C. At low temperatures, starch paste is thicker, at higher temperatures - more liquid. Now it is considered established that liquefaction occurs due to the appearance of another enzyme (cytase) along with amylase, and that both processes depend not only on the action of amylase

Further, it is still questioned whether the amylases of resting grain and malt are the same. Brown and Maurice see the difference in the fact that grain amylase at rest (translocation) dissolves starch grains without first corroding, that it has little or no effect on starch paste and only converts soluble starch, at an optimal temperature of 45-50 ° C, into sugar. In contrast, malt amylase corrodes and liquefies starch grains before saccharification, and its optimum temperature is 50-55 ° C, ie 5 ° C higher.

Recent studies (Chrzaszcz)) undoubtedly indicate that here we are talking in both cases, about the same enzyme, only with a difference in action. For the preparation of bread, an interesting fact is that in a dormant grain, the ability to liquefy is very insignificant; this has been repeatedly established. The process of protein breakdown is even less known in detail. The grain contains only a small amount of enzymes that dissolve the protein; action, they are very weak. In malt the proteolytic strength increases rapidly and the degradation very soon leads to the formation of amides. The formation of peptones is very insignificant, and even generally controversial.

Osborne's hypothesis that the alcohol-soluble protein of a dormant grain disappears rather quickly during germination, and that a new alcohol-soluble proteid of a different composition appears in its place, is finally refuted by Luers in his book ("Hordein and Binin of Barley"). in alcohol, the malt protein is a part of the undecomposed protein of the dormant grain. Later, a noticeable regular increase in the acid content is observed in the malt, which is caused partly by the formation of acid phosphates, and partly by the formation of organic acids (amino acids).

As for the technique of making bakery malt, it is basically very simple and, like the preparation of ordinary malt, does not require a lot of special experience in order to provide good improvers.

Well-refined grain, in most cases barley or wheat, is first washed and swollen, since germination can take place only with sufficient moisture.

This process is carried out with different durations, depending on the type of grain and on the type of process. Coated barley requires a longer softening (at a higher temperature 2 days, at a lower temperature 3-4 dmya); grain free from shells, such as wheat, requires a shorter time of about 24 to 36 hours. During this process, the grain must be given sufficient air access so that it does not suffocate.

The wet grain, ready to swell, is either scattered on the current, or placed in rotating drums, where the germination process takes place. It is very important to observe certain conditions here: the height of the grain layer, the regulation of ventilation, temperature, the duration of germination, etc. thanks to this, all growth processes are stopped.

The malt is “dried.” Drying should not occur at too high a temperature, since otherwise the malt enzymes are weakened or become inactive. The loss of enzymatic ability during drying is inevitable, but if the temperature is maintained at 40-50 ° C, the diastic force can be maintained up to 80-9b The main enzyme - amylase or diastase, is easily quantified by the diastatic strength and thus gives the opportunity to characterize individual malt preparations The action of the malt preparations, of course, corresponds to the value of the diastatic strength, but the importance of malt in baking is not limited to this.

The decisive factor is not the maximum of enzymes, but their optimum. It is especially necessary to observe the ratio of diastatic to proteolytic factors. No data have been published regarding those conditions in malt production that inhibit proteolytic enzymes and favor diastatic enzymes. It is also little known how certain varieties of grain affect one development or another, although these influences probably exist. All this remains the secrets of the manufacturers.

In any case, it is known that the action of malt in this respect is very varied, and the task of production in the manufacture of malt should be the possible limitation of the action of dissolving the protein.

The analytical constants for this evaluation of malt preparations are not firmly established. Methods for determining the proteolytic strength of malt preparations are especially unsatisfactory.
Test baked goods should be decisive.

The most perfect use of malt for baking purposes is undeniably in the preparation of extracts from malt.

The solutions obtained in this way contain all the active substances from all layers of the grain without the addition of shells and films.

Such malt solutions are retained only when, through appropriate thickening, they are so highly enriched in dry matter that the development of microorganisms is impossible.

Therefore, they are evaporated into thick extracts and sold. Naturally, a prerequisite for this concentration is that the temperature used to evaporate excess water does not exceed a known limit, otherwise the effect of enzymes decreases. Water extracts of malt are evaporated in a room with rarefied air, in which, depending on the degree of rarefaction, water, even at lower temperatures of 40 - 45 ° C, turns into steam. So, in general terms, the formation of diamalt occurs. The details of the preparation and processing of malt are unknown, and all the originality of the manufactured products is based on them.

Over the past decades, a number of malt extracts have been developed for baking purposes, proving how the use of malt preparations has taken root.

Below are tables of the composition of the Mzlcextracts, showing very different data (see table. P. 502). In this table, the following should be noted. Fluctuations in water content are very significant and should be borne in mind when evaluating maltz extract. For ash content, values ​​of 1.65-1.77 are normal.

Increased ash content should be suspicious when using impurities, especially if the amount of phosphoric acid is different. The fluctuations, as can be seen from the above numbers, are significant. The titratable acidity, in terms of lactic acid, ranges between 1.24 and 2.28. These are huge differences. Here, of course, we are talking about a greater or. less acid impurity. It is important that the pH did not always run parallel to that found by titration; degree of acidity, which should not be forgotten when evaluating malt.

With regard to diastatic strength, we also see noteworthy differences; so there are extracts that practically do not have DS (diastatic force) at all, (since DS up to 30 almost does not indicate an increase in the enzyme content); Really diastatic extracts can be considered only those extracts that have, according to the old Linner method, 50 and more DS. On the other hand, DS of extracts rarely rises above 100. Extracts with 60 - 75 DS are normal. In extracts with a higher DS, there is a strong effect that destroys proteins.

The simplest use of malt is to grind it with the grain, or to mix flour-ground malt into flour or dough. Similar malt flours can be found commercially.

Malt flour can have very different effects.
It depends on the content of soluble substances and, above all, the enzyme. The enzyme is especially abundant in the outer parts of the grain. If one wants to preserve these amounts of enzyme in malt flour, then it is necessary to prepare malt flour of high yields, that is, add as many outer layers of grain to the flour as possible. Malt flour becomes dark, because shell particles, just like in the manufacture of flour, color the products in a dark color. If you grind malt into a fine white flour, then its activity also decreases. It is especially important here to pay attention to the limitation of the proteolytic force.

As for the mode of action of this most important improver, then, first of all, one must understand for oneself in which direction one can expect an influence on the process of making bread.

First, it is necessary to anticipate the effect of malt preparations on
fermentation process anyway.
Thanks to the digestible substances in the malt, the yeast is provided with a large amount of necessary food and a rich substrate for fermentation. Due to the increase in the amount of enzymes resulting from the addition of malt to the dough, their effect is enhanced and supplemented, and, depending on the duration of their action, a new soluble, easily perceptible and fermentable substance is formed.

Therefore, from the point of view of accelerating the fermentation process, malt preparations can always be used. The advantages in this case will be: shorter fermentation time or savings on yeast (within known limits).

This acceleration of fermentation is not always beneficial for the volume of the bread. Not all flour produces a dough that responds to the acceleration of fermentation by increasing its volume; the dough, increasing in volume, can give a coarsely porous, coarse crumb.

In most cases, accelerated fermentation is reflected in an increase in the volume of the bread.

Further it is necessary to trace the following actions of malt enzymes. Accelerated decomposition of starch favors the formation of a large amount of soluble carbohydrates, as well as the formation of a crust, since caramelization and brittleness depend on the content of sugar substances. The attractive brown color of the bread, the elasticity and vibrant shine of the crust are also advantages to be noted when using malt.

The action of the enzyme is also manifested in the ability to liquefy. Starch "opens up" more, so to speak, it becomes more accessible to swelling and gelatinization, water binds more strongly and bread can stay fresh longer. The fact that during the baking process not all the starch of the flour is completely gelatinized was mentioned earlier; it is known that the degree of gelatinization can change, for example due to the admixture of gelatinized starch.

A similar effect can be caused by an increase in enzymatic activity. Equally important is the effect that malt has on flour gluten due to its enzyme power.
Enzymes that dissolve protein substances become especially active due to the germination process. Their action is expressed in the decomposition of gluten, in its translation into a more mobile form; eventually it turns into soluble protein substances. Intermediate stages are still capable of swelling, but they already do not swell into a coherent viscous mass.

Gluten is not washed out of malt flour.

Regarding the effect of malt on the dough, the following must be said: if the gluten of the flour is strong and capable of resisting, but not stretching enough, then the protein-dissolving effect of the malt is manifested in softening the gluten and increasing its extensibility.
If we are dealing with soft-gluten flour, the gluten of which is more susceptible to the action of protein enzymes, then the increased proteolytic power of the malt may soften it too much. The dough will blur, the bread will not have enough elastic, even and loose crumb. but the latter will be rough and with irregular pores.


In extreme cases - most clearly "this is seen in large breads - shortcomings appear that completely coincide with those obtained with an admixture of a large number of germinated grains. A weak, highly hydrated gluten does not have sufficient strength to resist to retain carbon dioxide, the crumb settles, the gas forms under large spaces in the upper crust; or the cohesion of the dough becomes insufficient and the crumb bursts under the pressure of the gas.

Malt is an improver, therefore it is directly related to baking.
It works too vigorously to be added to flour in mills, which has sometimes been recommended and even practiced. This is not true.

By storing and preparing the grain, they try to provide flour stability, and on the other hand, they are not afraid of such impurities that naturally weaken this flour stability (Adding malt during short storage does not harm if the flour is sufficiently dry (14%); but the miller cannot know , as
for a long time and how they will store this flour.

If we consider the effect of malt as an improver, then its effect is observed in three main directions:
1) the ability of starch and gluten to absorb water increases,
2) soluble substances are formed, which enhances fermentation,
3) caramelization is enhanced.

This applies to all stages of bread making; if we imagine the reasons for these actions, it becomes clear that we are dealing with nothing else than the acceleration and revitalization of the processes on which the baking process is based. This explains the positive effect of this enhancer.
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GRAIN MALT AND MALT PREPARATIONS

The material on this topic is taken from the book by L. Ya. Auerman "Technology of bakery production".

In our country, fermented and unfermented dry rye malt is produced.

Fermented dry rye malt (red or stewed) is obtained by sprouting rye grain, fermenting it (simmering), drying and grinding. Unfermented malt (light or unbaked) is produced in the same way, without the fermentation process.
The process of "fermentation" means the process of keeping (languishing) the germinated grain of rye at a high temperature. Fermented malt, in addition to this operation, is also dried at a high temperature.

At the same time, the process of formation of melanoidins is intensively proceeding in rye malt, giving malt a red (more precisely, red-brownish) color and a specific taste and aroma. It is for these properties that this type of malt is produced.

In fermented malt, the enzyme activity is very low - several times less than in ordinary rye wallpaper flour, since the high temperature at the stages of simmering and drying leads to inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, fermented rye malt should be considered not as an enzyme preparation, but as an additive that improves the color of the crumb of rye bread (the crumb acquires a pleasant brownish-brown color), its taste and aroma. A similar effect can be obtained with a significantly lengthened baking of rye bread from wallpaper flour and without the addition of red rye malt.
Fermented (red) rye malt is usually added to the brew used in the preparation of rye custard, Borodino and some other types of bread.

However, the preparation of red rye malt is a laborious, lengthy process and even with the most rational technology associated with the loss of about 20% of dry matter of rye grain.

Unfermented dry rye malt, unlike fermented malt, is dried immediately after grain germination.

Drying is carried out at reduced pressure and temperature so that a-amylase, proteolytic and other enzymes, the activity of which sharply increased during grain germination, retain this activity after drying. The malt crushed after drying has a light color, very close to the color of flour (therefore it is often called white malt), and a sharply increased activity of enzymes, especially a-amylase.

Therefore, this type of malt (unfermented) is used in bakery as an a-amylolytic enzyme preparation (FP) and for saccharification of the brew in the preparation of Riga and some other types of bread, as well as an improver in the processing of wheat flour with a reduced sugar and gas forming ability.
It should be noted that in the practice of the domestic baking industry, white malt with a high activity of enzymes is used only in a limited amount of the corresponding types of bread and is provided as an obligatory component of the recipe in a certain dosage that is not tied to the properties, and in particular to the sugar and gas-forming ability processed flour.

In some countries, the addition of high enzyme white malt or malt extract is linked to the sugar-forming ability of flour.

When preparing wheat bread from wheat flour of the highest and I grades, instead of crushed unfermented malt, it is advisable to use malt extracts.

The most valuable components of active white malt for baking - its enzymes, sugars and dextrins - almost completely pass into an aqueous solution. Therefore, if you prepare a water extract from malt and boil it down (at reduced pressure and temperature, so as not to inactivate enzymes), you get an extract - a thick syrupy mass containing all parts of the malt that are soluble in water. This extract is free of shells and coarse grain particles that cause a darker crumb color. The use of malt extracts is widespread in a number of countries.

Malt extracts improve gas formation in the dough, as they consist of about 60% fermentable sugars and, in addition, contain active amylolytic enzymes, in particular a-amylase. Proteolytic enzymes of malt extracts and proteolysis activators also play a significant role.

The use of malt extracts with a high proteolytic activity and a high content of proteolysis activators in the preparation of bread from weak flour with weak gluten can lead to a deterioration in the quality of the bread, to an increase in its spreading. Therefore, when characterizing the quality of malt extracts, one should be guided by indicators of not only their chemical composition and a-amylolytic activity, but also proteolytic activity.

The dosage of malt extract, depending on its enzymatic activity and properties of flour, ranges from 1-3% to the mass of flour.

Admin
MALT EXTRACTS AND THEIR USE IN BAKERY

Malt extract plays an important role in shaping the taste of bread, from kneading the dough to keeping it fresh for a long time, in a natural way.

Malt has a positive impact on human health due to its valuable nutritional qualities. Malt extract contains many of the soluble substances and trace elements found in grains, many of which are considered vital to humans. The special taste of "black" bread of the malt extract components is acquired during grain malting and further in the process of technological dissolution and extraction, when the malt is converted into malt extract.

The malt extract not only improves the mouthfeel, but also preserves the freshness of the baked goods. These improvements depend on the quality of the primary malt and the amount of maltodextrins in the malt extract, as well as the specific ability of the malt to bind moisture. Malt extract acts as a moisturizer, effectively binding moisture to the dough.

Malt extract gives baked goods a natural sweetness, natural flavor and aroma, and a more attractive appearance than conventional sweeteners. Dark malt extracts have significant coloring power, although less. than natural caramel color E-150c. The crust color of the bread is improved by the interaction of amino acids and simple sugars in the malt extract, during the melanoidin formation reaction.

Malt extract is available as a thick syrup and dry powder, which is more expensive.
A kilogram of malt extract, when used in baking, replaces three to five kilograms of regular fermented malt. In syrup, the extract has a moisture content of usually about 25%, with an ash content of 1.5-2.2%.

The different types of malt extracts have an acidity of about 5.5 ph. Diastatic extracts in units of diastatic force (d.s.) have 100 units or more. Non-diastatic extracts (with a small amount of enzymes) are also used, which have a strength of 10 to 30 units.

In terms of the amount in which malt or malt formulations are best used, durum flour with a high amount of gluten requires more malt than soft wheat flour.

First of all, the addition of malt or its extract is determined by the required enzyme content in the flour.

With normal diastatic strength (100 units of d. Page), a dosage of 1.5-2% is considered sufficient, in terms of the amount of dry flour, or 1.0-1.5% in terms of dough.

Admin
When baking bread, you can use the Kvass wort concentrate, which contains:

rye and corn flour
rye and barley malt

According to the descriptions of malt above in the text, liquid malt concentrate can be taken 1-3% by weight of flour according to a bread recipe - this means for 500 grams of flour you need 5-15 ml of wort - about 1 tbsp. l.

Kvass wort concentrate is sold in shops, markets, etc. The problem with buying a can of concentrate is that it is a seasonal product and is sold mainly during the season of kvass preparation. Therefore, those who wish to use it can make a stock of concentrate, the shelf life of which is 12 months. Glass jar, weight 650 grams.

The kvass wort concentrate looks like this:

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery
Admin
Malt

Material taken from the site 🔗 Thanks to the author crucide

What is malt?

Malt (in English malt) is germinated and dried seeds, usually rye, barley or wheat.The two main uses for malt are baking and brewing. Malt properties differ depending on the preparation method. There are two fairly broadly defined types used in baking: unfermented, or light (white) malt, and fermented, or red, malt. In brewing, malt varieties are defined much more strictly and are numbered in the tens.
To make unfermented malt, grains such as rye are germinated to a certain extent and dried very carefully. Externally, unfermented malt does not differ from the original grain, but the taste cannot be confused - the rye grain is hard, bland and mealy in taste, the malt is much more fragile and has a distinct sweetish aftertaste. Such malt is quite easy to make at home, there are enough instructions on the Internet, but I prefer to buy it - home brewing is very popular and there are no big problems finding malt. Since I buy whole grain malt and grind it myself, I avoid barley malt, which is sold in husk, preferring rye and wheat malt.
The situation is slightly more complicated with fermented malt. Traditionally, it was made by letting sprouted wet malt mash in heaps - hence the name "fermented". Nowadays, malt is usually oven-roasted to the desired degree of doneness. The technology is described in detail in many available sources and not that it is completely impossible to reproduce at home, but you will have to tinker. This malt is easier to buy.

Whole grain malt

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery

left: rye (top), unfermented rye malt (bottom)
center: unfermented wheat malt (top), unfermented barley malt (bottom)
right: fermented rye malt

Ground malt

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery

unfermented wheat malt, fermented rye malt, unfermented rye malt

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery

Depending on the manufacturer, rye malt can have a different appearance and aroma.

What is malt for?

In order to raise the dough, yeast needs food, and they feed on sugars. Flour, although it contains a certain amount of sugars, consists mainly of starch. Starch is also a kind of sugar, but yeast cannot directly process it. To break down starch into sugars necessary for yeast, special enzymes are required, which are called amylases, they are present in flour, but not all and not always in sufficient quantities. Unfermented malt contains a large amount of amylases and its addition significantly accelerates the saccharification of starch and thus accelerates fermentation. Adding the correct amount of malt will make the crumb more fluffy and elastic, and the crust more ruddy, but the key word here is “correct”, because it is very easy to spoil bread with excess malt, it is no coincidence that GOST regulates (albeit indirectly) the maximum activity of flour's own enzymes. How much malt is correct? My advice is none. This is especially true of American flour, to many varieties of which malt is added already at the mill, and rye flour, for which unfermented malt is actively contraindicated.
A common use for unfermented malt is in brewing infusions. Here, the ability of amylases to saccharify starch is most appropriate. By the way, the optimal temperature for brewing flour is determined at 65 ° C precisely because amylases reach their peak activity with it.
In fermented malt, amylases are killed during heating, so the malt serves solely as a source of sugars, flavor and color.

Dry bread kvass

Sometimes, instead of malt, it is suggested to use dry bread kvass. If it is made according to the classic recipe, then dry bread kvass consists of 80% bread crumbs, which are made from specially baked kvass bread, 17% red malt and 3% white, unfermented malt.

Malt extract and maltose syrup

The malt extract is obtained by soaking the malt in water and then evaporating it into a thick syrup. It consists almost entirely of malt sugar, maltose.Malt extract can have a wide variety of color, flavor, aroma and enzymatic activity, depending on the properties of the original malt and the method of its preparation.
A similar product is maltose syrup, which is obtained by saccharifying corn flour with barley malt. The result is practically the same - a syrup with a high maltose content and a malt flavor. The difference is that, depending on the technology, maltose syrup, first, can be saccharified in different ways, that is, it can have a different sugar content; second, maltose syrup is usually lighter in color than malt syrup.
Dry malt extract, DME, is a sweet powder obtained by drying the malt extract. The color can be from beige to dark brown. Don't confuse it with malt.

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery

regular light honey, malt extract, molasses
Admin
Admin
PolinaDan
Hello, tell me, is it possible to replace the malt extract (indicated in the original recipe for the bread maker) with dry fermented malt?
Admin

Can be replaced. But it is better to steam it with boiling water, and let it cool to 30 * C and then add to the batch. Thus, the bread will have a malt flavor and good smell chernyashki.
Nanny_Ogg
And in what proportions to brew?
(I want to try replacing Glofa with fermented malt)
More precisely, in the recipe (the link was at the beginning of this topic)
30 g fermented (red) malt
2 tsp (2 g) ground coriander
300 g of water

It confuses me that this is a fairly large volume of liquid, judging by the photo, it is also thick. I can't figure out how to calculate the total amount of liquid in a bread recipe.

I added quite a bit to Glofu in Darnitsky (for color-aroma) 0.5 measuring tablespoon
What will this be equivalent to in brewed malt I cannot understand
Rys
Good day.
My wheat bread recipe lists ground diastatic malt. It is also indicated that its diastatic strength is 1.5-2 times higher than that of pale malt. It is incomprehensible that rye or wheat malt is meant (alas, only unfermented rye is available), and most importantly, can it be replaced with unfermented malt, increasing the permissible number of times N? If possible, do you need to brew it?
Admin

Ground diastatic malt should be very finely ground and can be mixed directly with flour and kneaded.
Read carefully on the packaging: what is the purpose of such malt (bread, beer) and how to put it in the dough, what proportion is recommended by the manufacturer.
Rys
Thanks for the answer, Admin. But in the end I did not understand if this diastatic malt from the recipe could be replaced with the one I have - unfermented light grade 1, additionally finer resin and simply added to the flour?
Krasnodark
Good day! I bought rye fermented malt flour from Dido in the store. Do you need to brew it with boiling water or pour it dry? I understand this is malt?
Admin

Malt flour can be mixed directly with other flours without brewing.
Krasnodark
Thank you very much, Admin!
Anatolyevna
You can replace malt with kvass wort in Tanya-Giraffe's recipe https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&topic=323764.0... And will I get bread? I bake in the oven.
Admin

It will work out! This is a common malted wheat-rye bread. You can replace malt with leavened wort, it will be even easier. For 450-500 grams of flour, you need 1 tbsp. l. wort, it will give a dark color to rye bread, you do not need to brew the wort.
Follow the mixing rules, read here https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&topic=49811.0, make the dough soft, but not liquid
Anatolyevna
Quote: Admin
For 450-500 grams of flour, you need 1 tbsp. l. wort, it will give a dark color to rye bread, you do not need to brew the wort.
Everything else according to the recipe or try another bread? I just want to learn.
Admin
Quote: Anatolyevna

Everything else according to the recipe or try another bread? I just want to learn.

What do you mean by this concept "I want to learn"? Learn how to bake wheat-rye or just wheat bread - but only in the oven? There are so many nuances here!
Start with master classes on koloboks and baking theory https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&board=131.0, I have all the baked goods in the oven, tin or hearth.
Or choose a recipe here, also an oven https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&action=profile
Choose a recipe, read it carefully and then we'll figure it out
Anatolyevna
Previously, she always baked bread only white, yeast, sponge. I haven't tried rye, wheat-rye. I wanted to try. Until I made the leaven, I will bake with yeast (I often use dry yeast). From simple to complex. I baked bread with whey and old dough (my mother taught me), there is also a recipe on the forum.
alena40
bought malt extract, how many and for which bread can you use it?
Admin

Look at the recipes on the forum, with the use of malt - it is sure to indicate how much is needed for a given amount of flour and how to brew it.

In terms of the amount in which malt or malt formulations are best used, durum flour with a high amount of gluten requires more malt than soft wheat flour.

With normal diastatic strength (100 units of d. Page), a dosage of 1.5-2% is considered sufficient, in terms of the amount of dry flour, or 1.0-1.5% in terms of dough.
alena40
but I already bought liquid malt. That is why the questions arose. Much has been written about the dry one, but I did not find it about the liquid one.
Admin

Take 1-2 tbsp. l. malt for 450-500 grams of flour, and put directly into the dough when kneading.
alena40
Thank you so much
Levelours
Please tell me, I have unfermented rye malt (there is no other one on sale). Can they replace fermented or not?
Admin
Quote: Levelours

Please tell me, I have unfermented rye malt (there is no other one on sale). Can they replace fermented or not?

The difference in the technological process of preparation of ordinary rye and red rye fermented malt is only in the fact that with red malt an additional phase is introduced - languishing, or fermentation, and a special mode of its drying. These changes give rise to the specific flavor and color of the red malt.

Try baking, but the taste and color will differ from this malt.
Levelours
Here's how)) thanks, I'll try).
The other day I tried to bake Borodinsky, put this malt there, but the bread did not work out, it was sticky inside, as if not baked, but the smell was awesome. As a result, I cut the bread into crackers, fried them and their husband sharpened them))) After reading the topics, I realized that I had added a lot of water, it seemed like a bun was turning out ... I thought it might be because of malt, but apparently not)
Then, as I bake, I will unsubscribe)
Sibelis
I read here that unfermented malt is actively contraindicated in rye flour. I wonder why?
Niarma
Tatyana, how can you replace white malt in a recipe? https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&topic=417502.0 or just make dough without it?
Admin

Niarma, this is the author's recipe, so ask this question to the author of the recipe Olga, I don't want to offend the author
Niarma
But sent here
Admin
Terrible! They will come up with something, and then ...

From point of view speed up the fermentation process, malt preparations can always be used. The advantages in this case will be: shortening fermentation time or saving on yeast

White malt is the same malt, only unfermented, i.e. it does not produce a dark color.
If its amount in the bread dough is small, then it can be missed just in general, or a little increase in the amount of yeast.

A complete replacement for white malt will be this composition:

Welding:
Flour -5% including: wheat flour - 15 grams, rye 10 grams
Fermented rye red malt 0.4% - 2 grams
Soy flour 1.0% - 5 grams
Total flour 32 grams
Boiling water - 130 ml. Flour brew is prepared with a flour-water ratio of 1: 4.

Details here https://Mcooker-en.icdself.com/index.php@option=com_smf&topic=390380.0
MariV
Tanya why are you swearing? Why are you nightmare me? White malt, unfermented - I copied the information about it myself, and now?

The problem is, nobody really wants to read forum materials, they demand a ready answer here and now.

I am white unfermented malt always I add to any dough, and to bread with rye flour along with dark, fermented.

In Moscow, I bought it at the Kuznetsky Most.

Here, on the back of the package

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery

Malt, malt preparations - use in bakery
Second
Help solve the problem. I've been dabbling with malt substitutes for a long time.Malt was not commercially available at the time. First tried Glofu... But the taste of the glofa is not quite malty and I didn’t like it very much, so I refused it.
Then I tried naturin... It turned out to be what we need. And the taste and color and quality of the bread became at the same level. But, the trouble crept up unnoticed. A bakery shop has closed in our city.
Now you have to buy ingredients from the online store. And there naturin costs 5 times more.
I decided to switch to red fermented malt... I brew it in boiling water and let it settle.
Everything is fine except that the bread does not rise well. Moreover, no matter what is in the oven or in the bread maker.
Maybe not brew it, but just throw it into flour? Tell me who has experience with malt.
sazalexter
Second,
Quote: Second
Maybe not brew it, but just throw it into flour?
So I do, I never brew malt.
Quote: Second
Now you have to buy ingredients from the online store.
This shop? 🔗
Second
And there seems to be nothing more.
Second
Don't know if you can buy naturin somewhere at an affordable price?
Lerele
I also want to add malt to the dough. Only here they sell 1 kg, which one to take, dark or light? I'm afraid that I won't get rid of the dark one in 6 months, as long as it can be stored.
Can I put it in a light dough? Will the color, taste change?
Second
The color and taste will definitely change
Lerele
And if you put the light one in rye bread, will it taste like dark malt?
Christmas trees, what to do ???
viy
Hello! Can you please tell me if it is possible to freeze rye malt extract (liquid)? And then the shelf life after opening the can is only 45 days
Admin

Can!
The solution is liquid, it will normally tolerate freezing. Just put it in plastic so that the glass does not crack.
Better yet, pour it into an ice mold, in cells - so later you will take pieces and defrost them in the required amount.
viy
Thank you, Admin! About the ice cube trays! Brilliant!
Mirabel
Lerele, Is there such a miracle as malt in Evhop? What is it called and where is it sold?

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